Alexandre Millerand
1920 - 1924

Official portrait: Alexandre Millerand
Portrait officiel d’Alexandre Millerand
© Bibliothèque nationale de France. Diffuseur La Documentation française

10 February 1859
Étienne Alexandre Millerand was born in Paris.

1881
After earning a degree in Law, he joined the Paris Bar and became an important business attorney. He also worked as a journalist, collaborating on Clemenceau’s newspaper, Justice, and as a politician.

27 December 1885-1919
He was elected the Radical Deputy for the Seine Department.

22 June 1899-6 June 1902
He became Minister of Trade, Industry and the Post and Telegraphs in Waldeck-Rousseau’s Government. He had social-oriented laws passed (work duration, weekly breaks, retirement).

1904
He was excluded from the Socialist Party for being in a “bourgeois” Government and started his move towards the Right.

24 July 1909-2 November 1910
He served as Minister of Public Works, the Post and Telegraphs.

14 January 1912-12 January 1913
He served as Minister of War.

17 February 1913
Raymond Poincaré was elected President of the Republic.

26 August 1914-29 October 1915
As Minister of War, he had to deal with the beginnings of the First World War.

December 1918
He was elected member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences because of his many political publications, which were focused on labour conditions.

1919
He served as Commissioner-General of the Republic in Strasbourg in charge of re-organizing the three former Departments of Alsace-Lorraine.

20 January-23 September 1920
He served as Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs.

23 September 1920
He was elected President of the Republic when Paul Deschanel was incapacitated.
He did not settle for being President in name only and wanted to be given real powers, including the power to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies. He was against the détente with Germany advocated by Aristide Briand, the Prime Minister at that time, which was why Briand resigned on 12 January 1922.

May 1922
He visited Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.

14 October 1923
He gave his famous speech in Evreux where he declared his intention to reduce the role of Parliament. With a view to 1924 elections, he took a position in favour of the Bloc National (political grouping of moderates and conservatives established after the First World War).

11 June 1924
He was forced to resign after the victory of the Cartel des Gauches in the general election. Gaston Doumergue was elected President of the Republic.

5 April 1925
He was elected Senator for the Department of Seine.

30 October 1927
He was elected Senator for the Department of Orne, then re-elected on 14 January 1936.

April 1943
Alexandre Millerand died in Versailles.

Paul Deschanel

Paul Deschanel

Gaston Doumergue

Gaston Doumergue